Linux is a popular open-source operating system used by millions of people around the world. One of the key features that make Linux stand out from other operating systems is its unique file system. The Linux file system is a hierarchical directory structure that organizes files and directories in a way that is different from other operating systems. In this article, we will explore the basics of the Linux file system and discuss how it works.
The Root Directory
The root directory is the top-level directory in the Linux file system. It is denoted by a forward slash (/). All other directories and files in the file system are stored under the root directory. This means that the root directory is the parent directory for all other directories and files in the system.
Under the root directory, there are several sub-directories that are used to organize the files and directories in the system. Some of the commonly used sub-directories are:
/bin: Contains essential system binaries such as ls, cp, mv, and rm.
/etc: Contains system-wide configuration files.
/home: Contains the home directories of users.
/lib: Contains system libraries used by applications.
/media: Contains mount points for removable media such as USB drives.
/opt: Contains optional software packages.
/tmp: Contains temporary files.
/usr: Contains user binaries, libraries, and documentation.
/var: Contains system logs and variable files.
One of the important aspects of the Linux file system is its permission system. Each file and directory in the system has three types of permissions: read, write, and execute. These permissions determine who can access, modify, and execute the file or directory. The permission system is organized into three categories: owner, group, and others.
The owner of a file or directory is the user who created it. The group is a set of users who share the same permissions for the file or directory. Others refer to everyone else who is not the owner or part of the group.
File permissions are represented by a series of letters and numbers. The first character represents the file type: “-” for a regular file, “d” for a directory, “l” for a symbolic link, and so on. The next three characters represent the permissions for the owner, the next three characters represent the permissions for the group, and the last three characters represent the permissions for others.
For example, if a file has the permissions -rwxr-xr–, it means that the owner has read, write, and execute permissions, the group has read and execute permissions, and others have only read permissions.
The Linux file system is a unique and powerful way to organize files and directories in the operating system. Understanding the basics of the file system is important for anyone who uses Linux, especially for beginners. In this article, we have explored the root directory, sub-directories, and file permissions in the Linux file system. By mastering these basics, you will be able to navigate and manage the Linux file system with ease.